# infiDOF Centre of Distinction (CoD)

**Renewed Readiness for Industry for Training Support** – Every engineer needs to be ready for industry at all times which requires continual renewal of readiness.

The Centre of Distinction is set up to uplift the quality of fresh graduates and working professionals to find themselves in a better mindset for career in engineering analysis. The mission is to make every outgoing candidate from CoD to be work ready by imparting excellence in the technical skills as well as the keep them motivated with continual improvement.

__Goals:__

- To impart technical skills of highest level to be competing with the world’s need for analysis engineer.
- To inculcate an inner urge to be continually updated.
- To offer Certification Programs recognized by the industry.

# infiDOF Principal Program – FEA

This course is developed for candidates who want to define their career under analysis field. The topics covered under this program are as listed below.

__Topics Covered__

### 1. Theoretical Background of Solid Mechanics

Solid mechanics is the study of the **deformation** and **motion **of solid materials under the action of forces. It is one of the fundamental applied engineering sciences, in the sense that it is used to describe, explain and predict many of the physical phenomena around us.

Solid mechanics is a vast subject. One reason for this is the wide range of materials which falls under its ambit: steel, wood, foam, plastic, foodstuffs, textiles, concrete, biological materials, and so on. Another reason is the wide range of applications in which these materials occur. For example, the hot metal being slowly forged during the manufacture of an aircraft component will behave very differently to the metal of an automobile which crashes into a wall at high speed on a cold day

### 2. Basic FEM background

The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDE) of physics and engineering by discretization of the domain of analysis into elements.

The technique has very wide application, and has been used on problems involving stress analysis, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, diffusion, vibrations, electrical and magnetic fields, etc.

### 3. Material Models and its selection

This is the study of some elementary but very relevant deformable materials applied for various structures, for example beams and pressure vessels. **Elasticity theory** is used, in which a material is assumed to undergo small deformations when loaded and, when unloaded, returns to its original shape. The theory well approximates the behavior of most real solid materials at low loads, and the behavior of the “engineering materials”, for example steel and concrete, right up to fairly high loads.

More advanced theories of deformable solid materials include

**Plasticity theory**, which is used to model the behavior of materials which undergo permanent deformations, which means pretty much anything loaded high enough

**Viscoelasticity theory,** which models well materials which exhibit many “fluid-like” properties, for example plastics, skin, wood and foam

**Visco-plasticity theory**, which is a combination of viscoelasticity and plasticity, and is good for materials like mud and gels, Etc.

### 4. Familiarization of the tool for its usage

- Units and Material Models
- Geometry Generation and repair
- Meshing and contacts
- Boundary conditions
- Solution and settings
- Post-processing
- Troubleshooting

### 5. Static Structural Analysis

A static analysis calculates the effects of steady loading conditions on a structure, while ignoring inertia and damping effects, such as those caused by time-varying loads. A static analysis can, however, include steady inertia loads (such as gravity and rotational velocity), and time-varying loads that can be approximated as static equivalent loads (such as the static equivalent wind and seismic loads commonly defined in many building codes).

Static structural analysis determines the displacements, stresses, strains, and forces in structures or components caused by loads that do not induce significant inertia and damping effects. Steady loading and response conditions are assumed; that is, the loads and the structure’s response are assumed to vary slowly with respect to time.

The types of loading that can be applied in static analysis include;

- Externally applied forces and pressures
- Steady-state inertial forces
- Imposed non zero displacements

### 6. Thermal Analysis

Thermal Analysis is a technique that studies the properties of materials as they change with temperature. Most industrial application and equipment need thermal effects to be modeled and check for its integrity. Heat flux, convection, conduction, radiation and various other het related inputs are studied and applied.

### 7. Coupled field thermo-mechanical Analysis

A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis, the analyses are coupled.”

Thus, each different physics environment must be constructed separately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. However, it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment, and using it with any following coupled environments, the geometry is kept constant.

Although the geometry must remain constant, the element types can change. For instance, thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to determine the stress in the link. It is important to note, however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.

### 8. Transient Analysis

Transient dynamic analysis (sometimes called time-history analysis) is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under the action of any general time-dependent loads. You can use this type of analysis to determine the time-varying displacements, strains, stresses, and forces in a structure as it responds to any combination of static, transient, and harmonic loads. The time scale of the loading is such that the inertia or damping effects are considered to be important.

A transient dynamic analysis is more involved than a static analysis because it generally requires more computer resources and more of *your* resources, in terms of the “engineering” time involved. You can save a significant amount of these resources by doing some preliminary work to understand the physics of the problem. For example, you can, analyze a simpler model first. A model of beams, masses, and springs can provide good insight into the problem at minimal cost. This simpler model may be all you need to determine the dynamic response of the structure

### 9. Non-linear Analysis

All physical processes are inherently nonlinear to a certain extent. For example, when you stretch a rubber band, it gets harder to pull as the deflection increases; or when you flex a paper clip, permanent deformation is achieved. Several common every day applications like these exhibit either large deformations and/or inelastic material behavior. Failure to account for nonlinear behavior can lead to product failures, safety issues, and unnecessary cost to product manufacturers.

Nonlinear response could be caused by any of several characteristics of a system, like large deformations and strains, material behavior or the effect of contact or other boundary condition nonlinearities. In reality many structures exhibit combinations of these various nonlinearities.

**Geometric nonlinearity**

Structures whose stiffness is dependent on the displacement which they may undergo are termed geometrically nonlinear. Geometric nonlinearity accounts for phenomena such as the stiffening of a loaded clamped plate, and buckling or ‘snap-through’ behavior in slender structures or components. Without taking these geometric effects into account, a computer simulation may fail to predict the real structural behavior**.**

**Material Nonlinearity**

Material Nonlinearity refers to the ability for a material to exhibit a nonlinear stress-strain (constitutive) response. Elasto-plastic, hyperelastic, crushing, and cracking are good examples, but this can also include temperature and time-dependent effects such as visco-elasticity or visco-plasticity (creep). Material nonlinearity is often, but not always, characterized by a gradual weakening of the structural response as an increasing force is applied, due to some form of internal decomposition.

**Contact Nonlinearity**

When considering either highly flexible components, or structural assemblies comprising multiple components, progressive displacement gives rise to the possibility of either self or component-to-component contact. This characterizes to a specific class of geometrically nonlinear effects known collectively as boundary condition or ‘contact’ nonlinearity. In boundary condition nonlinearity the stiffness of the structure or assembly may change considerably when two or more parts either contact or separate from initial contact. Examples include bolted connections, toothed gears, and different forms of sealing or closing mechanisms.

### 10. Composite Structures Analysis

The present quite dynamic course of technology is causing the need to seek new structural materials with different properties which is impossible to obtain with traditional materials. The group of materials are becoming more widely used may include various types of composite materials. Their intensive development dates back to 1960 years of the twentieth century, when it began to use multi-layer polymer fiber composites, called laminates. Structures which were made using this technology compared to traditional materials are characterized by a much smaller weight and can have perfect strength parameters. Therefore they are finding wide applying in such fields at present as: aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, manufacture of sports equipment and more.

Flexibility in shaping the parameters of composites makes it practically every structure made in this technology requires an individual design process of composite material. This leads to the formation of a variety of materials, the detailed characteristics such as elastic constant and strength characteristics should be known before applying them. It should also be noted that the change of geometric characteristics of the composite material can cause a change in its mechanical properties and may even receive additional sheet. Each of the newly formed composite requires individual examination designed to determine its basic characteristics such as strength and elastic.

The process of research and analysis of structural elements made of composites are divided into two separate processes. The first closely linked to computer modeling and simulation, and the second related to the experimental tests performed on the bench.

### 11. Fatigue & Crack Analysis

When structures are subjected to repeated loading and unloading due to material fatigue, they can fail at loads below the static limit. The classical **stress- and strain-life methods** relate a stress or strain amplitude to a fatigue lifetime. Together with the stress-based and the strain-based critical plane methods, you can evaluate the high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue regime. In applications involving nonlinear materials, you can use energy-based methods or Coffin-Manson type models to simulate thermal fatigue. When dealing with variable loads, the accumulated damage can be calculated from the load history and the fatigue limit.

The fatigue load cycle can be simulated in solid bodies, plates, shells, multi-bodies, applications involving thermal stress and deformation, and even on piezoelectric devices. In order to improve computational efficiency when dealing with subsurface or surface initiated fatigue, a fatigue evaluation can be performed on domains, boundaries, lines, and in points.

**Crack growth** is on the atomic level breakage and separation of the bonds linking the atoms and/or movement and gathering of dislocations (imperfections in the atomic structure). Thus, new surfaces are created in the solid as the crack nucleates and continues to grow. This can be interpreted as an adaption of the material to an applied load of a critical level.

### 12. Troubleshooting

Debugging the errors both in terms of physics of the problem and the software related issues needs to be addressed which arise during the simulation. Various error mitigation techniques will be explained as when it is encountered during the simulation of the above modules

### 13. Technical Presentation

Representing the technical details and solutions of the project/problem is very important activity for a simulation engineer as it has to be communicated with peers, experts and clients. Adequate time will be spent to inculcate the need for good presentation and presentation techniques.

### Minimum hours required: 120 hours

### Case studies:

- 2 cases as per the domain chosen by candidates
- Problems which interests the candidate out of the above mentioned modules of simulation

- 2 cases as per the domain chosen by infiDOF

### Certificate:

- Only after successful completion of case studies and a personnel interview

### Mode of Training

The training is done through experienced professionals from the industry with frequent guest lectures by working professionals and consultants based on the need.

- Offline – Class room training
- Online

### Available Schedules

- Classroom Schedules
- Weekdays – Day – Suitable for Fresh Graduates
- Weekdays – Evening – Suitable for undergraduates and working professionals
- Weekends – Suitable for working professionals

- Online – Anytime

### Cost

**INR 18,000/- **

### Software Used

**ANSYS 17**